By Carl Strikwerda
The 1st booklet to discover the historic improvement of Belgian politics, this groundbreaking learn of the competition among Catholicism, Socialism and nationalism is key studying for a person attracted to Europe prior to international battle I.
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J. "6 Within a few decades after 1860, the growth of industrial classes and the rise of liberalism compelled elites to extend the suffrage, first, to the middle classes and then, finally, to most adult males. At the same time, the extension of constitutional rights gave most political movements a degree of legal protection. 7 Having the right to vote or participate in political activity meant little, however, if lower-class people did not possess education, information, and freedom from constant labor.
These political movements had seemingly unpredictable effects. Some of them tore societies apart; others enhanced the welfare of many citizens. What explains the rise of such a variety of political movements and parties? Recently, some scholars have argued that one can only fully understand these developments by tracing them back to the rise of mass political movements in the pre-World War I era. Increasing worker militancy before the war, for example, helped to quadruple labor union membership after 1918.
What explains the rise of such a variety of political movements and parties? Recently, some scholars have argued that one can only fully understand these developments by tracing them back to the rise of mass political movements in the pre-World War I era. Increasing worker militancy before the war, for example, helped to quadruple labor union membership after 1918. Pre-war dissidents within the nationalist and Socialist camps presaged the rise of fascism and communism. 2 Yet historians and social scientists have largely drawn connections between pre-war politics and the interwar period without examining mass politics before the war in its own right.