Microbiology

A Photographic Atlas of Marine Biology by Gary D. Wisehart, Erin C. Rempala, Michael J. Leboffe, David

By Gary D. Wisehart, Erin C. Rempala, Michael J. Leboffe, David Ferguson

This ebook is a full-color complement that gives images of preserved specimens and pictures taken at a number of aquaria to supply insurance of organisms within the world's oceans. it really is designed to accompany any marine biology textual content or laboratory guide. 3-hole drilled

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These green, flagellated unicells were isolated from estuary water. The flagella emerging from the indented end are barely visible. Most features that differentiate prasinophyte species are subcellular or biochemical. Thus, identification of these cells was not attempted. Major Eukaryotic Unicellular Marine Autotrophs Major Eukaryotic Clade Phylum or Class Archaeplastida Prasinophyceae (Figure 4-2) General Description of Unicellular Representatives Examples Approximate Number of Species Etymology Polyphyletic; cell “wall” of one or more layers of scales of varying composition; chlorophylls a and b, and b-carotene in a single lobed chloroplast; starch stored in chloroplast; one or more flagella emerging from a pit at the anterior; red eyespot present in some Pyramimonas, Tetraselmis, Prasinocladus 135 prasinos—green, phyte—plant Mixotrophic unicells with one or more discoid chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and b-carotene; cytoplasmic paramylon granules for storage; one or two flagella; red eyespot; proteinaceous pellicle; some cells are flexible Euglena, Eutreptia, Trachelomonas 1,000 eu—genuine, glene—eyeball, phyte—plant (presumably referring to the red eyespot) Unicells typically with two flagella in a groove around the middle of the primary axis; often mixotrophic, many with cellulose thecal plates; chlorophylls a and c, and fucoxanthin in autotrophic forms Ceratium, Noctiluca, Gonyaulax, Gymnodinium 4,500 dinos—whirling, flagellum—whip Bacillariophyceae (Figures 4-5 through 4-9) Unicellular or colonial; chlorophylls a, c1, and c2, and fucoxanthin are present in one or more variously shaped chromoplasts; wall of silica separated into two valves; oil droplets form outside of chromoplast for storage Navicula, Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Tabellaria, Fragilaria 6,000 baculus—stick, phyte—plant Haptophyta (Figure 4-10) Two smooth flagella associated with unique micro­tubular feeding structure (haptonema); chlorophylls a, c2, and a variant form of a, as well as fucoxanthin, b-carotene, and other accessory pigments; many with calcium carbonate coccoliths Pavlova, Coccolithophora, Prymnesium 400 hapt—to grasp, phyte—plant Excavata Euglenophyta (Figure 4-3) Chromalveolata Dinophyceae (Dinoflagellata to zoologists) (Figure 4-4) 34 A Photographic Atlas of Marine Biology SECTION 2 Marine Bacteria, Archaeans, and Protists A by a protein pellicle (pellicule—a small piece of skin) rather than a cellulose cell wall.

There are three groups of autotrophic stramenopiles: diatoms, the golden algae (which are not well represented in marine environments), and the brown algae. Only diatoms are covered in this chapter; the brown algae are covered in Chapter 32. The fourth group, oomycetes or water molds, are colorless and heterotrophic. Diatoms, or bacillariophytes, are photosynthetic unicellular eukaryotes. Cell shapes are either round (centric) or elongated (pennate)—see Figures 4-5A and 4-5B. Figure 4-6 shows the different appearance of a diatom depending on whether it is viewed from the side (girdle view) or from above or below (valve view).

40 A Photographic Atlas of Marine Biology SECTION 2 Marine Bacteria, Archaeans, and Protists Ircinia Black ball sponge 5 Porifera P oriferan sponges (Table 5-1) are sessile (attached), encrusting benthic animals that feed by filtering the water and capturing particulate matter (Figures 5-1 through 5-2). Most species grow attached on hard substrata, though some can anchor in stable mud sediments. Sponges often are prominent components of epifaunal (“fouling”) communities on hard substrata at all latitudes and can be especially important sessile components of coral reef systems.

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