By Willis, H. Lee; Schrieber, Randall R
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Extra info for Aging power delivery infrastructures
2. The majority of equipment in the area is more than forty years old. 3. The system is well engineered and fully meets minimum engineering criteria. 4. The area is seeing steady, if perhaps low, load growth. 5. The area is plagued by above average equipment failure rates. Overtime is high due to large amounts of unscheduled repair and restoration. 6. SAIFI began rising some years ago; SAIDI is beginning to rise now. 7. Major interruption events always occur due to a bizarre series of outages. 8.
S. The “downtown power system” in most large cities is based on substation sites and rights of way that were laid out in the 1940s through the 1960s, when the post WWII boom 18 Chapter 1 created a period of sustained economic growth. These designs were executed with great skill to meet both the needs of the moment and reasonable amounts of load growth two or more decades into the future. But between four and six (not just two) decades have passed since these systems were first laid out and built.
CAIDI (essentially their product) increases considerably. 2c. Higher delivery operating costs. The distribution systems in question operate at high loading levels. One consequence of this is the need in places for the utility to replace existing lines with a larger conductor simply to handle the MW-miles of delivery burden. Regardless, such systems typically have relatively high electrical losses. In addition, voltage drops are extreme. Tap changers and voltage regulators operate frequently, both fail more often and both require more preventive maintenance.